sexta-feira, 24 de fevereiro de 2017

Cisco Announces Open Source Project on Information-Centric Networking (ICN) for 5G

Cisco is behind the creation of an open source community at Linux Foundation called Community ICN (CICN). The aim is to push ICN towards 5G architectures.

ICN is a networking paradigm that decouples content ID from its location, enabling persistent access to content by its name. Nowadays, to access a content, the user should point to the URL where it is located in the web. For example, named-data.net/project/archoverview. The network translates the domain name to an IP address (of an web server) and forwards the request to it. Contents are accessed via a web server where they are stored. The main drawback of this approach is that all users in the world requiring a content should forward their requests to the same web server, no matter its neighbor already has the same content. Many content and Internet providers address this problem by caching contents in their networks.



With ICN, the network itself is capable to locate contents by their names. There is no need to point to where it is located. In other words, the network understands the information object being requested (not the web) and delivers it from the closest network cache (e.g. a cache in a ISP). In other words, the network solves the problem of accessing contents by their names, not the web.

The Cisco initiative is focused on the Content Centric Network (CCN) [ 1 ] software acquired from PARC (Xerox company). The idea is to support continuous ICN development in a larger open source community.

CCN can run over the current Internet stack, as an overlay network, or replace TCP/IP with a novel named-content routing approach. In CCN, interest packets are sent to request the desired content with its name in the packet header. There is no destination host address in the packets!! Nodes that receive the request and have the desired content in their caches, answer with a data packet. The network is responsible to populate name prefixes in nodes, enabling routing of requests.

To accelerate ICN for 5G, Cisco is releasing a Hybrid ICN (hICN) approach. hICN put content names into IPv6 addresses, aiming at natively support ICN in IPv6, instead of an overlay network. More details of how this is done can be found at Fast Data Project (FD.io)

Cisco contends that ICN is relevant for 5G, since it provides content awareness.

I am the coordinator of a research project started in 2008, which proposes an alternative ICN architecture called NovaGenesis. NovaGenesis means new digital beginning. It is disruptive as CCN, but it includes many other paradigms rather than ICN. For example, it also supports: Service Centric Networking (SCN), Network Function Virtualization (NFV), Network Self-Organization (SON), Software-Defined Networking (SDN), Cognitive Radio (CR), Internet of Things (IoT), among others. NovaGenesis has a prototype running since 2013.


We have proposed a replacement for DNS [ 2 ] and we are applying NovaGenesis for dynamic spectrum management in IoT [ 3 ]. NovaGenesis can be applied for 5G as well.

More details on NovaGenesis are available here: www.inatel.br/novagenesis. Also, check it out ICT Lab from Inatel - Instituto Nacional de Telecomunicações, Brasil.

References
[ 1 ] Jacobson, V., Smetters, D., Thorton, J., Plass, M., Briggs, N., and R. Braynard, "Networking Named Content", In proc. of IEEE CoNEXT, 2009.

[ 2 ] Antonio Marcos Alberti, Marco Aurelio Favoreto Casaroli, Dhananjay Singh, Rodrigo da Rosa Righi, Naming and name resolution in the future internet: Introducing the NovaGenesis approach, Future Generation Computer Systems, Volume 67, February 2017, Pages 163-179, ISSN 0167-739X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.future.2016.07.015.

[ 3 ] Antonio M. Alberti, Daniel Mazzer, M.M. Bontempo, Lucio H. de Oliveira, Rodrigo da Rosa Righi, Arismar Cerqueira Sodré Jr., Cognitive radio in the context of internet of things using a novel future internet architecture called NovaGenesis, Computers & Electrical Engineering, Volume 57, January 2017, Pages 147-161, ISSN 0045-7906, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compeleceng.2016.07.008.

Internet Photo:  (c) I, Cawi2001 [CC BY-SA 2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)], via Wikimedia Commons

sexta-feira, 4 de novembro de 2016


Fractal Disruption

For a long time, people want to understand how changes happen.

Nowadays, we are experiencing a fast change, exponential, driven by abundance of technology. We are facing strong disruption on several markets. For example, consider Uber, Tesla, Google, Airbnb and many others.

Two months ago, I was in Porto Alegre, Brazil, talking with a Uber driver. I do mentioned how fast the changes are coming. The guy talked about taxi drivers and how their are fighting against the change. Then, the conversation took a nice path. He told me that he is concerned with his job, since Uber is replacing drivers by machines. In other words, the Uber driver is concerned in loosing its job. Imagine how concerned are the taxi drivers.

Self-driven Uber car is a second disruption. A disruption over a disruption.

Talking with a friend in a bar about this (Estevan Lopes), I do realized that disruptions occur recursively, like in a fractal object. That is an object with fractional dimension. Disruption is the part of the object that repeats itself at different scales.

I draw the idea bellow in a bar napkins to do not loose the idea. The big square is the Uber. The second largest square is the new disruption. The disruption inside the disruption: the self-driven Uber cars. An so on.

Now, just do the math.

















Photo: Estevan Lopes.


quarta-feira, 19 de agosto de 2015

Limites da Computação e Singularidade Tecnológica

O fato dos computadores não conseguirem prever o futuro (o final de uma partida de futebol, por exemplo) impede que a singularidade tecnologia aconteça?

Com todo o poder do nosso cérebro nós também não conseguimos prever com certeza o final de um jogo ou para onde está indo o mercado financeiro. E isso é muito bom na verdade, pois se isso fosse possível, o Universo seria completamente determínistico e tudo já estaria traçado de antemão - uma chatice. Não há nada de errado em máquinas que não possam fazer isso agora. Isso não quer dizer que elas não possam ultrapassar nossa capacidade computacional e chegar mais perto de determinar as mais prováveis saídas de um jogo. Ao meu ver isso depende enormemente da ciência do mundo físico que elas tiverem e da capacidade de correlacionar informações. Em fim, ao meu ver, essa limitação que as máquinas tem de computar o futuro de certos fenômenos físicos não as impede de nos ultrapassar como entidade cognitiva e evoluir sem nossa interferência - essa é a definição de singularidade tecnológica  Assim sendo, a singularidade pode acontecer mesmo sem a capacidade de prever o futuro com 100% de certeza!!! E em um futuro distante, quando nossas tecnologias se misturarem ao mundo físico em escalas muito menores que as atuais, talvez elas tenham todas as informações necessárias para prever o futuro muito melhor do que nós. Mas, de fato, para prever o futuro com 100% de certeza seria necessário estar ciente de todo o mundo físico, todo ele. 


terça-feira, 4 de agosto de 2015

Another way to initialize a random generator in C++

If you have several programs generating random seeds at nanosecond difference, you could experiment the same output of rand() function.

An alternative way could be:

int R=0;

long long Temp=(long long)&R;

// Initialize the random generator
srand ((unsigned int)Temp);

Every program puts the R variable in a different portion of the memory, so conflict is minimized for programs starting at the same time, for example.

If you are concerned that two computers could allocate the variable R exaclty at the same memory position, then you can do:

#ifndef _TIME_H
#include


long long Temp=(long long)&R;
 

// Initialize the random generator
lsrand ((unsigned int)Temp*time(NULL));
 

// Generates a integer random number
R=1+(rand()%2147483647);


Workshop 5th Generation of Mobile Networks


@ Aureliano Chaves Auditorium, INATEL, Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

5th Brazil Korea Forum


3rd Future Internet Seminar


terça-feira, 3 de fevereiro de 2015

A NovaGenesis proxy/gateway/controller for OpenFlow software defined networks


Is it possible to combine Software-Defined Network (SDN), Information-Centric Network (ICN), Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), ID/LOC splitting, and Self-Organizing Network (SON)? Check out this paper: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/abstractMetrics.jsp?tp=&arnumber=7014201&queryText%3DNovaGenesis

SDN + ICN + SOA + SON + ID/LOC = NovaGenesis POX Agent

Matéria sobre Convergência no G1

O Prof. Antônio Alberti deu entrevista ao G1 sobre as vantagens da convergência de Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicações (TIC). Confira aqui.

segunda-feira, 15 de setembro de 2014

TEDxInatel: Na Direção de Novas Arquiteturas para a Internet

O Prof. Antônio M. Alberti, coordenador do ICT Lab e arquiteto do projeto NovaGenesis, apresentou a fala: "Na Direção de Novas Arquiteturas para a Internet" na primeira edição do TEDxInatel, em Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais. A fala resumiu algumas ideais do projeto NovaGenesis, que vem sendo desenvolvido desde 2008. Ela defende que está na hora de reprojetarmos a arquitetura da Internet, criando novas arquiteturas essenciais, coesas e integrativas. Novas arquiteturas "mais espertas" devem favorecer as soluções autônomas, onde "coisas" e "serviços confiáveis" se auto-organizam de forma criativa para atender objetivos traçados pelas pessoas e máquinas. O evento, além de exigir do palestrante a capacidade de explicar suas ideias em  apenas 18 minutos, foi extremamente interessante do ponto de cross-relação de ideias. Em especial, as discussões com o Dr. Bob Deutsch revelarem semelhanças entre o desenvolvimento incremental do cérebro humano e da Internet. Ambos, são resultados de um processo incremental de evolução. Entretanto, a Internet pode ser redesenhada do zero, algo que parece impossível de ser feito para o cérebro humano hoje. A relação com a criatividade foi outro aspecto interessante. A criatividade requer curiosidade, autonomia, atenção aos sentimentos. Entretanto, muitas vezes não deixamos nossos programas de computador errarem para aprender. Nossas arquiteturas deverão deixar as máquinas mais a vontade para que os programas possam aprender com os seus erros. Esse é de fato a ideia do chamado rádio cognitivo. Fotos: (c) TEDxInatel 2014.




quarta-feira, 23 de julho de 2014

Next talks



"User-centric Cloud-Based Architecture," II EU-Brazil Cooperation Workshop in ICT - EUBR 2014, together with SBC 2014. July 29th, 2014, at Brasilia

The way that users communicate these days is very different from a few years back. The classic host-based paradigm, in which users would make requests for specific content stored in specific locations, is giving room to new forms for users to exchange data. This is a product of not only devices becoming very portable, but also gathering the latest advancements in terms of processing, storage, and wireless technologies. Thus, users are able to produce and consume content anywhere and anytime, and such data exchange may take place through spontaneously formed networks. Furthermore, this content can be store locally and/or on the users' personal clouds, as well as on public clouds. Different networking approaches (e.g., Delay/Disruption-Tolerant Networking, Opportunistic Networking, Information-Centric Networking, User-Centric Networking) have emerged and have been able to deal with the different challenges (e.g., intermittent connectivity, high mobility, longer delays, expensive infrastructure and/or connectivity). Also, Cloud and Big Data systems should be integrated to these networking approaches as they can further increase the capabilities of the user devices and handle the vast amount that users produce. In this talk we present our vision and proposal for a integrative, clean slate architecture, which fits the Brazil-Europe Cloud+Security Horizon 2020 call requirements and includes a set of novelties beyond current state-of-the-art.


"Internet do Futuro," Cidade Feliz, Cidade Criativa. August 12th, 2014, at Santa Rita do Sapucaí.

Is it possible to design a new Internet? What could be the benefits? How it could be? Introducing NovaGenesis future ICT architecture.







The Internet has invaded most aspects of life and society, changing our lifestyle, work, communication and social interaction and giving us expectations about new forms of interactions and access to global knowledge. Application and user demands on the Internet are increasing with mobile technologies and media content. Nevertheless, the Internet today is a complex agglomerate of protocols that inherits the grown legacies of decades of patchwork solutions.There is a common consensus that the current Internet needs improvement. Nevertheless, there is not yet a shared vision on how this may happen. As a direct consequence research pro- grams have started worldwide to re-think traditional Internet design principles and to come up with new architectural concepts for the so-called Future Internet (FI). The FI has certainly a more broad scope than the current one, since it needs to integrate recent advances on Cloud Computing, Software-Defined Everything (radio, networks, systems, etc), Internet of Things, Service-Oriented Architectures, Content-Distribution Networks, Autonomic and Cognitive Networks, and so on. This tutorial gives an introduction to Future ICT, focused on correlating several emerging technologies. It summarizes perspectives and already identified requirements, challenges, and trends behind key technologies that can be used on this task. More specifically, it covers substrate resources (computing, communications, etc) capacity, scalability, ubiquity, exposition, and virtualization; Internet of Things (IoT) and Real-World Internet (RWI) approaches; In- formation-centrism; the role of naming in design, the paradigm of identifier/locator splitting; the role of semantic and context, specially for autonomic and cognitive architectures; mobility, security, privacy, trust; and Software-Defined Everything. The ideas of Internet of Services (IoS) and Service-Based Applications (SBA) are discussed. It discusses simplicity, sustainability and evolvability of design, as well as how to accommodate tussles, regulations, policies, etc. Finally, it briefly presents NovaGenesis future ICT architecture, given an overview of the proposed design, as well as discussing its integration with Cognitive Radio over Fiber Networks, IoT, and user-centric architectures.




The Internet is an amazing artifact of human ingenuity. It has invaded most aspects of life and society, changing our lifestyle, work, communication, and social interaction. Nevertheless, the Internet nowadays is a complex agglomerate of protocols that inherits the grown legacies of decades of patchwork solutions. Protocols were added to extend the architecture towards new usages. Limitations on naming, security, scalability, mobility, and routing support - to name a few of them - are increasingly concerning Internet professionals and researchers. This reality check has been motivating many people to ask whether is it possible to redesign the Internet? Since this question was first made, several initiatives to reshape the Internet appeared all around the world under the banner of the so called Future Internet Architecture (FIA) design. In this talk, I am going to provide a panorama on the current Internet state, briefly presenting and discussing some of its main limitations and problems. Continuing, I am going to present very briefly some clean slate (tabula rasa) FIAs, including the one we are proposing: the NovaGenesis information architecture. To conclude, I will give some details of the tests I did together with ETRI - Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute during my post-doc in South Korea.


The Internet is an amazing artifact of human ingenuity. It has invaded most aspects of life and society, changing our lifestyle, work, communication, and social interaction. Nevertheless, the Internet nowadays is a complex agglomerate of protocols that inherits the grown legacies of decades of patchwork solutions. Protocols were added to extend the architecture towards new usages. Limitations on naming, security, scalability, mobility, and routing support - to name a few of them - are increasingly concerning Internet professionals and researchers. This reality check has been motivating many people to ask whether is it possible to redesign the Internet? Since this question was first made, several initiatives to reshape the Internet appeared all around the world under the banner of the so called Future Internet Architecture design. Among these initiatives, there is the NovaGenesis universal convergent information architecture, which can be seen as a new architecture to replace the current Internet TCP/IP.


The talk presents the general idea of ​​IoT and the work that has been done at Inatel so far. Discusses the current state of IoT solutions, pointing out several aspects that still need to be improved. After, discusses solutions that no longer depends on TCP/IP, especially presenting a proposal called NovaGenesis, which is being developed at  Inatel since 2008.

terça-feira, 3 de junho de 2014

First Inatel's Future Internet Seminar - Primeiro Seminário de Internet do Futuro do Inatel

It was held in May 29th, 2014, the first Future Internet Seminar at Inatel. Three future Internet architectures have been presented and discussed: IRATI RINA, NetInf and NovaGenesis. At the end of the seminar, Prof. Antonio Alberti did a comparison of the three architectures, putting in evidence their differences, scopes, and limitations. XIA architecture was also inserted in discussions, even thought it was not formely presented.

Foi realizado em 29/05 o primeiro seminário de Internet do Futuro do Inatel. Três propostas de arquitetura para Internet do Futuro foram apresentadas e discutidas: IRATI RINA, NetInf e NovaGenesis. Ao final, o Prof. Antonio Alberti fez uma comparação entre as três, destacando suas diferenças, escopos e limitações. A arquitetura XIA também foi inserida nas discussões, apesar de não ter sido formalmente apresentada.

Prof. Marco Aurélio Casaroli presenting IRATI RINA approach.
IMG 7695
Photo: Marina Lidiane de Aro, ASCOM, INATEL.

Prof. Evandro Luis Brandão Gomes presenting NetInf initiative and architecture.
IMG 7704
Photo: Marina Lidiane de Aro, ASCOM, INATEL.

 Prof. Antonio Marcos Alberti presenting NovaGenesis convergent information architecture.
IMG 7708
Photo: Marina Lidiane de Aro, ASCOM, INATEL.

Discussion with the audience.
IMG 7697
Photo: Marina Lidiane de Aro, ASCOM, INATEL.

quarta-feira, 28 de maio de 2014

Implementation of an Optical-Wireless Network with Spectrum Sensing and Dynamic Resource Allocation Using Optically Controlled Reconfigurable Antennas

Esse é o primeiro artigo de periódico feito em conjunto pelos times do Laboratório WOCA e Laboratório ICT do INATEL. Mais estão a caminho.

This is the first periodic paper done together by WOCA and ICT Laboratories at INATEL. More are coming.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2014/670930/

segunda-feira, 3 de março de 2014

Recent papers on Cognitive Networks and Internet of Things

We are starting this year with some new exciting divulgation of NovaGenesis related research:

1) Implementation of an Optical-Wireless Network with Spectrum Sensing and Dynamic Resource Allocation using Optically Controlled Reconfigurable Antennas, International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Special issue on Antennas and RF Front Ends for Cognitive Radio, 2014.

2) Specification of a Convergent Referential Platform for the New Generation of Wireless Networks, IEEE Latin America Transactions, March 2014.

3) Developing a NovaGenesis Architecture Model for Service Oriented Future Internet and IoT: An
Advanced Transportation System Scenario, IEEE World Forum Internet of Things, Seoul, Republic of Korea, March 2014.



4) Dynamic Spectral Sensing and Resource Allocation in Optical-Wireless Networks, Wireless Innovation Forum Conference on Wireless Communication Technologies and Software-Defined Radio (SDRWInnComm 2014), Chicago, USA, March 2014.




sexta-feira, 25 de outubro de 2013

BIC Trustworthy ICT Brazil Exterior Working Group Launch

It happened in the last Tuesday (October 23th) at São Paulo a BIC (Building International Cooperation for Trustworthy ICT) meeting to launch the Brazil's Exterior Working Group (EWG). The aim is to build a full mesh collaboration among Brazilian community and security research community at Europe, Asia, Africa. NovaGenesis security aspects requirements and open challenges have been presented at the event. The BIC web site is at: http://www.bic-trust.eu/. The flyer of this BIC session can be found at: http://www.bic-trust.eu/files/2013/09/BIC_Flyer_22Oct2013.pdf. Thanks to the BIC coordinator James Clarke for the opportunity. 


Figure 1. NovaGenesis being presented at BIC session in São Paulo.


 Figure 2. BIC coordinator Dr. James Clarke and the prof. Priscila Solis Barreto, member IAG BIC.